For All Growers: Trip Report June 6 & 7, 2001
Kern County BASIC Pilot Program
Deke and Francisco Cornejo made and compiled the report.
Antongiovanni June 6 & 7, 2001
Arrived late afternoon and stayed until sun went down at 20:30. Lacewings adults are flying from the Safflower field. More corn mix was planted along the south side of the field and patched on the east side. Cultivation and fertilization following irrigation is complete. Calasoma adult Carabid beetle seen. The larvae of this predatory beetle species seen last week were not seen this trip.
The limited samples with the sweep net reveal many, many lacewing adults in the Safflower. This field has received another irrigation and continues to blossom. Very few green lacewing eggs and no larvae have been seen so far. This field is starting to cotton blossom, the pollen and cotton nectaries should trigger their reproduction. Nectaries alone do not make them lay eggs. These are mostly last year’s adults that are still in winter reproductive diapause. There are no aphids or whitefly to make them lay eggs. The ladybug populations are not laying eggs much either. Only one egg mass and very few larvae are in the samples. One Syrphid fly was taken in the samples. Most of the ladybugs that we see are Coccinella spp. and not Hippodamia convergens (the only one that migrates to the mountains).
Samples were taken near the SE corner the evening of the 7th and the NW corner on the morning of June 8. The Trichogramma left from June 7 releases were colonized.
200,000 Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (swarming adults in cups with honey paper) were released by Francisco walking the field, middle of the south half of the field. The outside edges were colonized from the truck around the edge of all sides of the field.
Banducci June 68, 2001
Field Observations were made on June 8 at Banducci’s cotton and the check field of De Steffani across the road. The alfalfa hay north of this check field has been harvested. Both Banducci field and De Steffani check field have a lot of insects that came from the cutting of the alfalfa field. In fact there are more total insects (mostly beneficials) in the check field than Banducci across the road. Banducci has corn that is tasseling and just starting to silk. Banduccci is irrigating and only the west half of the corn was colonized with Trichos. The alfalfa field south of Banducci cotton has not been cut yet.
The NEC at Banducci appears to be more diverse than other fields in this area.
Most of the 100,000 Trichogramma adults were colonized in the corn. He plans to treat the corn once with Bt., which will not bother the Trichos at least those inside the eggs of the corn earworms.
DeStefani June 6 & 7, 2001
This field has RoundUp Ready cotton. Corn mix was planted at the one access over the irrigation ditch for the alfalfa (south) which has not been irrigated following the cutting. It appears that most of the insects from the solid cut alfalfa have migrated to the cotton and held in this half of the field by irrigation from the north to the south. Irrigation water was just starting on the last set at the south end of the field next to the alfalfa field which has been harvested.
Samples preserved in alcohol of the alfalfa field adjacent to this cotton to the south that were taken 5/17/01 by Stefan and Francisco were examined again looking for evidence of Trichogramma and none were found. No other samples have the level of Tricho that the Sanders field has on this date. However, the sieving of the sample makes it much easier to detect these tiny insects with the microscope. Thus far we have seen no evidence of natural Trichogramma other than the alfalfa field of Sanders.
This was perfect for releasing Trichogramma. Francisco walked two rows of the soon to be irrigated south end of the field. 500,000 trichos were released. The north side of the field was dry enough for me to release trichos in spots at the field’s edge from the truck. The west and east sides were under water or muddy and no releases were made. It has been demonstrated that tricho releases are most effective when they are concentrated where sprinklers or flowing water is first occurring. The looper leaf worms are laying eggs and a few bollworm moths are seen. This is ideal for starting the colonizations of Trichogramma egg parasites.
Reynolds June 6 & 7, 2001
Sampling at Reynolds was done on June 7. The wheat field has been harvested and all of the insects including some stinkbugs have migrated into the cotton. The replanted plants are up and irrigation by overhead sprinkling is in progress.
30 plants vacuumed NE corn planting. around the outside of west and north sides of field. The NEC at Reynolds is as complex with a diversity of beneficial species equal to Sanders cotton.
100,000 Trichogramma released corn mix planted SW, NW, NE.
Sanders June 6 & 7, 2001
Habitat planting has sprouted, corn Sudan sunflowers etc. Alfalfa hay has been cut leaving 7 strips of uncut alfalfa in bloom starting from the south to half way is solid cut. 5 ft. strip swept with net. Each uncut strip is slightly wider going north until the last strip which is a full border. The insects have moved away from the cotton plot migrating into strips, 1 through 7 with increasing population density. (most in #1 and least dense in final N Border).
Sample was taken from the last strip. The larger insects and leaves were sieved out and examined in the field. The tiny immature forms were winnowed through the sieve screen to obtain a alcohol sample to show any Trichogramma egg parasites of moths and butterflies, Scelionids that are known to attack Stinkbug eggs, Trissolcus spp. and Mymarids that attack the eggs of lygus, Anastis aeoli. The sample will also make it easier to find the immature forms of all of the NEC (natural enemy complex) in this organic unsprayed alfalfa ie. the good bugs found and pictures of last weeks report, May 24 & 25. Gymnosoma (Tachinid fly)on adult Says Stink bug was seen. Stink bugs were the only potential pest besides lygus. The populations were crowded into the alfalfa strip left standing. This gives the appearance of being a high population in strip #1 but is less in strip # 7 which is wider and at the farthermost end of the 90 acre field.
sample was also taken from SE corn planting site and 40 cotton plants vacuumed. There were two species of Trichogrammatidae (wild, natural) in the alfalfa. lygus egg parasite and all stages of bigeyed bugs, damsel bugs, Assassin bugs, ladybugs, etc. chasing the potential pests.
Analysis of effect of hay cutting:
Essentially, the cutting process has driven all flying insects away from the sample field. The field east of this alfalfa has not been irrigated (start this week). This north end of this check (nonrelease field) is adjacent to the concentration of insects in the alfalfa. However, this will probably not matter since the lygus like alfalfa better than cotton. Stinkbugs like alfalfa seed and will stay in the alfalfa too. There are no spider mites or aphids and plenty of beneficials to control them as well as the lygus and the other potential pests present in the alfalfa at this time.
100.000 Trichogrammatoidea bactrae were colonized in the Sanders cotton field. Corn mix was planted in three corners NW, NE & SE to provide habitat trap for worms and evaluate Trichogramma on corn earworm and green lacewing population density. We are enclosing a picture of Trichogramma life cycle. Flood irrigation started over a week ago on east side is being completed June 7. The drip line to our habitat is turned on each day and off at night.